Amache & Japanese American Timeline
U.S. Navy Commodore Matthew Perry invades Tokyo harbor with fleet of battleships, forcing Japan to open trade and relations with industrialized nations, thereby ending nearly three centuries of “Sakoku,” i.e., self-imposed Japanese isolation.
Japan sends first diplomatic embassy to Washington to ratify Treaties of Amity and Commerce between the two countries.
Meiji government permits Japanese to emigrate.
John Prowers and his new wife, Amache (the daughter of a local Cheyenne chief), establish their home near present-day city of Lamar.
In one of the worst atrocities in Colorado history, 700 Colorado Militia attack a peaceful and friendly Arapaho and Cheyenne encampment, killing 200 women, children and older men at the Sand Creek Massacre. Amache’s father, Lone Bear, is among those killed.
Japan is undergoing the Meiji Restoration; the U.S. promises to help the Japanese military and economy to modernize.
U.S. implements the 1870 Naturalization Statute, later amended to exclude Asians from U.S. citizenship.
Southeast Colorado organized into Bent Country.
Fleeing rising property and crop taxes levied to fund the Meiji Restoration, Japanese begin migrating to Hawai’i, a U.S. territory.
Town of Grenada (with an “e”) founded when Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad builds a line to Colorado Territory. The town’s name is changed to “Granada” (with an “a”) in 1886. A surveyor’s mistake places the end-of-the-line town about fifteen miles west of Kansas state line.
Colorado becomes the 38th State of the Union.
“Old Grenada” is dismantled and moved three miles west to current town site after the railroad extends its tracks westward to the city of Las Animas.
Lamar Land Office founded at site of present-day town of Lamar.
Bent County broken into smaller units including Prowers County, named for John Prowers.
First Japanese settle in Colorado, mostly in Denver but also in south central and southeastern parts of state including Prowers County.
Russo-Japanese War ends with Treaty of Portsmouth.
More than 3,000 Japanese cherry trees are donated by the Tokyo City Council to be planted in Washington D.C.
Immigration Act of 1924 prohibited persons not eligible for citizenship under the Immigration Act of 1870 from entering the U.S.
Japan’s limited natural resources cause emerging military to justify colonial expansion in Asia and the Pacific.
Japan invades Manchuria.
U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorizes the FBI to spy on Germans, Italians and Japanese in Hawai’i and West Coast, the largest Japanese communities.
Japanese armed forces attack U.S. Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawai’i.
Lt. General John L. DeWitt named head of the Western Defense Command. DeWitt recommends the detention of all Japanese 14 years of age and older in Hawai’i and along the West Coast.
Colorado Governor Ralph Carr requires that some 8,000 Japanese, German and Italian aliens apply for special identification certificates.
General DeWitt recommends all persons of Japanese extraction be removed from the West Coast to internment camps further inland.
Colorado officials asked to survey state for “appropriate” housing sites for Japanese evacuees.
President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, calling for exclusion of “undesirables” from West Coast.
President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9102, which establishes the War Relocation Authority (WRA).
General DeWitt orders 8 PM to 6 AM curfew and a five-mile travel restriction for German, Italian and Japanese nationals as well as for U.S.-born citizens of Japanese descent. Only persons of Japanese descent are prohibited from possessing firearms, weapons, ammunition, short-wave radios, radio transmitters, signal devices and cameras.
General DeWitt orders forced removal of Japanese nationals and U.S. citizens of Japanese ancestry from West Coast.
Evacuation notices appear on West Coast storefronts and street corners.
WRA opens first assembly center at Manzanar, about 220 miles northeast of Los Angeles.
Most governors of ten western states reject concentration camps for Japanese and Japanese-American civilians in their states. Only Colorado governor Ralph Carr says that “hosting detainees is a civic responsibility.”
Merced Assembly Center opens for Japanese detainees from northern California; most are sent to Amache.
WRA selects Holyoke and Granada as two candidate sites for a Japanese internment camp.
Poor working conditions leads to strike by “evacuee” labor at Santa Anita Assembly Center.
The Lamar Daily News announces that the Granada area has been selected for Japanese internment and work camp to be known as the Granada War Relocation Center.
Dillon Myer replaces Milton Eisenhower as director of the WRA.
Army Corps of Engineers opens surveying office in town of Lamar.
1,300 workers began construction on internment camp west of town of Granada. The entire Granada War Relocation Center project encompasses 16 square miles with the Town of Granada at its approximate center.
Two hundred mostly-male evacuees leave Merced Assembly Center for Granada War Relocation Center. They are a specially-selected advance party to begin preparations for receiving the bulk of the detainees.
Advance group of Japanese detainees arrive at Granada Relocation Center.
First group of “regular” detainees arrive at Granada. Seven more trainloads arrive from the Merced Assembly Center and, by September 18th, 4,500 detainees have arrived from Merced.
Evacuees begin arriving from the Santa Anita Assembly Center.
Three thousand Japanese arrive from southern California.
By the end of the month 7,567 Japanese Americans had arrived at the WRA “relocation” center where over ten percent of construction was incomplete.
Amache Co-Op founded and quickly becomes the largest such operation in Colorado.
The U.S. Secretary of War issues plans for all-Nisei (second generation Japanese, American born) battalion unit.
President Roosevelt orders the creation of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team including the 442nd Infantry, the 522nd Artillery Battalion and the 232nd Engineers Company.
Army personnel arrive at Amache to administer “loyalty” questionnaires to internees.
Seasonal leave established permitting detainees to labor at off-camp sites for determined periods.
Segregation hearings begin in Amache to determine loyalty of persons who answered “no” to loyalty questions. Hearings last until August.
Tule Lake relocation center in northern California is converted to a “segregation center” for detainees from other camps who are considered “disloyal.” Previous resident detainees considered “loyal” are ordered to choose reassignment to either Granada or to Jerome in Arkansas.
Dillon Myer arrives at camp to explain the segregation of camp residents into “loyal” or “non-loyal” groups.
125 Amache detainees sent to Tule Lake; 35 are expatriated to Japan, and one is sent to Leupp, Arizona. About 1,000 “loyal” Tuleans transferred to Amache.
WRA rescinds evacuation order. Over 75,000 detainees remain imprisoned.
Germany surrenders. Peace in Europe.
Three-quarters of the detainee population remains in camp.
U.S. drops atom bombs on Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki (August 9); immediate loss of life is estimated to be 250,000.
Japan surrenders. Peace in the Pacific.
Nisei soldiers chosen to lead victory parade of over 15,000 U.S. troops in Italy.
The Granada Pioneer (the camp newspaper) closes.
Last detainees leave Amache.
Tule Lake closes. The U.S. Japanese Internment Era ends.
The Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) honors WRA director Dillon Myer for his accomplishments against “war hysteria…and economic greed.”
Congress passes the Evacuation Claims Act. Internees are given January 3,1950 deadline to file claims for loss of property. Eventually, the U.S. government pays $31 million — less than ten cents per dollar of total losses.
Younger generation of Japanese Americans inspired by the Civil Rights Movement begin the Redress Movement.
First pilgrimage to Manzanar. Internees from other camps begin similar pilgrimages.
The JACL votes down a resolution seeking compensation from the government for the internment. This is the first institutional action addressing redress and reparations. Similar proposals continue to fail in following years.
President Gerald Ford apologizes to Japanese Americans for wartime internment.
First formal pilgrimage to Amache site organized by Asian-American Community Action Research Program (CARP) and student activists.
JACL asks Congress for $25,000 to each surviving detainee, an apology, and scholarships for Japanese American children.
William Hohri organizes the National Council for Japanese American Redress (NCJAR) to seek redress through a class action suit for $27 billion.
A third redress initiative, The National Coalition for Redress & Reparations, forms to directly lobby Congress.
Nine-member Commission of Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) established to investigate grounds for reparations to victims of forced removal.
CWRIC finds that Issei, Nisei and Sansei (first-, second- and third-generation) are eligible for restitution for acts committed against them between “December of 1941 and 1945.” Recommends payment of $20,000 limited to surviving internees only.
Denver Central Optimists Club — a mostly Japanese-American chapter — places memorial at Amache cemetery to honor the 31 Amache soldiers who died in battle and the persons who lived and died at the prison camp.
U.S. Federal Court rules in case brought by Fred Korematsu that internment was not justified.
President Ronald Reagan signs reparations bill into law. Payments go into effect under President George H.W. Bush. Civil Liberties Act of 1988 provides for presidential apology and $20,000 reparations to most internees, but excludes heirs of deceased internees. This legislation supercedes NCJAR class action lawsuit.
Amache is listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.
Court of Federal Claims authorizes apology letters and payments of $5,000 for Japanese Latin Americans. Many cases remain pending.
Nisei “draft resistors of conscience” recognized with documentary film “Conscience and the Constitution” as well as by JA veterans and community groups.
Los Angeles Chapter of the National Coalition for Redress/Reparations (NCRR) changes its name to Nikkei for Civil Rights & Redress to reflect its involvement in civil rights as well as continued commitment to redress for Japanese Americans and Japanese Latin Americans.
White House announces the Japanese American Confinement Sites (JACS) program, a competitive year-to-year initiative administered by the National Park Service, through which organizations apply for limited grants to fund various preservation projects at internment camp sites.
Amache is listed as one of Colorado’s most endangered historic sites.
Amache is designated as a National Historic Landmark.
University of Denver anthropologists hold the first archaeology and collections field school at Amache and the Amache museum.
California observes “Fred Korematsu Day of Civil Liberties and the Constitution,” the first such commemoration for an Asian American in the U.S.
Peruvian president Alan García apologized for his country’s internment of Japanese immigrants during World War II, most of whom were transferred to the United States.
The town of Granada agreed to a 99 year preservation easement lease to protect Amache. The Amache Preservation Society will be responsible for maintaining the new lease, which is expected to cost about $3500 per year.
The original water tank was restored and installed at Amache with a new tower stand, and a guard tower was reconstructed. The projects were funded by the Japanese American Confinement Sites grant program and the Colorado State Historical Fund.
University of Denver hosts the first Community Open House for people with family ties to Amache as part of the biennial Archaeology Field School.
John Hopper was given a commendation by the Consul General of Japan in Denver for his leadership of the Amache Preservation Society.
The reconstructed barracks project is complete. Visitors can new see the restored iconic water tower, guard tower, and barrack at Block 12H.
The Amache Preservation Society obtained a building in Granada for research, museum archives, and hosting groups such as University of Denver’s Archaeology Field School.
Return of the Amache 11F Rec Building project is underway.